Research Proposal Assignment:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT (ABSTRACT)
Summarise what you are going to do and how you are going to do it (maximum of 400 words). The description needs to be able to be understood by a person not familiar with your specific area of study.
Sleep is essential in order to keep human body well. This report will analyse the sleep quality of Indian migrants living in Perth, and will be adapted from the study completed at Howard university in Washington in 2017, which showed that the sleep quality and sleep duration of Africans decreased after immigration in America (Obi, 2017). It has been shown that age, working hours and gender of migrants influences the sleep quality (Obi 2017) Therefore, this study will determine the relationship between these factors and sleep quality of Indian immigrants living in Perth. Sleep quality and sleep duration is associated with the increased risk of heart problems, diabetes, stroke and depression. The result can be used as interventions for good quality sleep. In this study, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
Index (PSQI) will be used which is valid and reliable tool to analyse the sleep quality. The data will be collected by social network site (Facebook – Indians in Perth), e – mails (to personal contacts) and snow – ball technique.
The questions will be divided into seven components (Subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, use of sleeping medication, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction) and each section will be rated from score 0 to 3. Standard values of global PSQI is 5, and if global PSQI more than 5 it represents poor sleep on the other hand if global PSQI is less than 5 it reveals good sleep quality.
To determine the relationship between demographic factors and sleep quality SPSS will be used with the P value < 0.05. In this study, gender, marital status and working hours will be the independent variables and sleep quality will be the dependent variable. Difference between groups (i.e., gender, marital status) will be determined using chi square test. The result can provide information about significant factors, which decrease sleep quality and sleep duration of individuals and this may then be used to develop recommendations to improve the sleep quality of the individuals.
PROJECT PURPOSE – BACKGROUND LITERATURE IDENTIFIES THE GAP
This section outlines the project rationale or the key reasons for undertaking the project which is supported by the current evidence in the literature and the gap in the literature. (maximum of 500 words).
Sleep is an essential human physiological need particularly for physical well-being without which the life of human beings is threatened (Zakeri et al., 2006). There is evidence that sleep may play an important role in maintaining healthy heart function (Zolfaghariet al., 2012) since a normal heart beats about 70-80 times in every minute and 60 beats during sleep. Sleep may be described as a natural process that takes place in animals as well as human beings, which involves behavioural and physiological processes (Susan & Patricia, 2014). Sleeping less than 7 hours (short sleep duration) is associated with high mortality rate and risk for developing adverse cardiovascular, endocrine, immune or nervous system outcomes like obesity, diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, mood or anxiety disorders plus substance abuse (Chaput et al., 2007; Forquer et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2009; Korenet al., 2002; Kripke et al., 2002). It is well established that demographic, environmental plus illness-related factors may be implicated in sleep disturbances (Redeker & Stein, 2006). Various factors such as physical and individual factors like age, sex, medication, body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status as well as marital status and educational level, race, smoking, and physical disorders influence the sleep quality and quantity (Mohamadi & Shahparian, 2013). By contrast, some studies have reported inconsistent results on factors influencing sleep quality. A case in point reported that common sleep complaints
among older adults occurred following their comorbidities rather than aging per se (Foley et al., 2004).
According to Hale and Do (2007), there are few studies that have focused on differences in sleep with race unlike health disparities. Some scholars have focused on sleep duration, continuity as well as subjective quality among African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) (Durrence & Lichstein, 2006). Other sources demonstrated stronger but consistent differences in sleep architecture among CA and AA (Mezick, et al., 2008; Thomas et al., 2006). However, these studies reported contradictory findings on the influence of socio-demographic factors. Other sleep-related research areas that have elicited little interest but relevant for providing insight on ethnic differences are site-related effect on sleep (Stepnowsky et al., 2003), sleep accessories like beds, blankets or pillow and how they affect people’s sleep quality (Bader &Engdal, 2000; Lee & Park, 2006) and genetic-related
effect on sleep (Hamet& Tremblay, 2006). While much is published about subjective sleep quality as well as sleep disturbances among the general population, only few studies have focused on sleep and ethnicity, including different patterns and sleep quality across ethnic groups.
PROJECT AIM & OBJECTIVES – RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES (where applicable)
State the overall aim of the study. List the objectives of the project which are the specific details about what you hope to achieve such as an observable change in knowledge or behaviour (3-4 at most). State the specific research question(s) and associated hypotheses (if applicable) that will be tested.
This study aims to determine the impact of factors (age, gender, marital status, occupational status, working hours) on sleep quality among Indian immigrants in Perth.
a) To evaluate sleep quality (good or poor) amongst Indian immigrants in Perth.
b) To identify possible factors that may influencing the sleep patterns of Indian immigrants in Perth.
c) To provide the recommendations for improving sleep quality.
a) What is the quality of sleep of Indian immigrants in Perth?
b) Is there a relationship between age, working hours and sleeping quality of Indian immigrants in Perth?
c) Is there a difference in sleep quality due to demographic factors (gender, marital status, occupational status) in Indian immigrants living in Perth?
EXPECTED BENEFITS OF RESEARCH (SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY)
What expected benefits (if any) will this research have for the wider community? (maximum of 200 words)
According to Rao, et al. (1999), there is need for knowledge on normative sleep patterns in different ethnic groups to inform practitioners and researcher on differences in sleep measures among different patients of different ethnic backgrounds. Moreover, the author argues that it will help researchers to provide valid conclusions about interactions of ethnicity, psychopathology as well as sleep regulation.
Furthermore, Rao and colleagues (1999) emphasized that knowledge about cross-ethnic differences with regard to sleep patterns is important in identifying high-risk ethnic groups. Similarly, Jean-Louis (2008) noted that understanding ethnic differences associated with sleep profiles may help to develop new, innovative and culturally appropriate interventions for addressing these ethnic health disparities.
Therefore, this study is important since it will inform health providers and policy makers to develop interventions to prevent sleep disorders and the associated mental health problems in Indian migrants living in Perth.
Detail the method and procedures that will be used to undertake the project, i.e., how will you collect and analyse the data including any statistical techniques that will be used. Your detailed description should allow the reader to replicate the collection and analysis of your data. (maximum of 1000 words).
Research design- Descriptive
In this research, the descriptive design would be used.
Research approach- Deductive
The research approach helps to get information, which is required for an outcome. As per the viewpoint of Sargent et al. (2013, p.1163), there are two research approaches inductive research approach and deductive research approach. The inductive research approach is where the researcher will collect information about their topic. After that, they will generate new theory.
The deductive research approach is based on how the researcher will research the topic and make the conclusion using the existing theory. They do not develop the new theory in order to complete the research. In this research, the deductive approach will be chosen in order to analyse the sleeping pattern based on theories regarding sleep.
Population and sampling
In this study we will attempt to recruit 100 Indian immigrants living in Perth.
Data collection methods and analysis
There are two types of data collection methods, the primary data collection method and the secondary data collection method. In the primary data collection method, there are two strategies used qualitative data and quantitative data. The quantitative method includes survey and the qualitative includes interview. The quantitative strategy is based on a questionnaire, which is close ended. In this research, survey process under the primary data collection strategy has been chosen. A questionnaire has been prepared based on The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (http://www.psychiatry.pitt.edu/node/8240). This questionnaire would be uploaded on Qualtrics software an advertised on the Facebook page Indian in Perth with the permission of administrator of this Facebook page. Moreover, participants will be recruited through emails (personal contact) and snow ball technique. Participants will be asked for consent before participation in this research.
This study will also collect data on social demographic variables such as age, gender, employment and marital status of individual that can influence quality of sleep. The statistical analysis will determine relationships between independent variables and sleep quality, and differences according to socio-demographic factors.
Validity and reliability
The questionnaire used in this research has been used in article “The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for Psychiatric Practice and Research “and in university of Pittsburgh (psychiatric department). (http://www.psychiatry.pitt.edu/node/8240)
The sleep quality of Indian immigrants in Perth would be analysed by PSQI (Pittsburgh sleep quality index). It consists of 19 questions which covers different components of sleep like sleep quality, sleep disturbance, use of medication and sleep latency (how long it takes to fall asleep).
Each component (total number of components is seven) is weighted on 0-3 interval scale then global PSQI score is the total of all scores which ranges from 0 to 21. Lower score reveals healthier sleep quality. If global score is more than 5 then it represents poor sleep quality on the other side if global PSQI Score is less than 5 then it represents good quality sleep of individual.
All the collected data will be double-checked to ensure accuracy and consistency followed by exporting into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. A p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant.
Descriptive statistics for continuous and categorical variables; Chi-square tests for bivariate differences in categorical variables and Student’s t-tests for bivariate differences for continuous variables. The tests will also determine associations of sleep quality parameters with socio-demographic and other behavioural factors. Independent variables are the factors (occupational status, marital status, age, gender) that influence sleep quality and dependent variables are sleep quality (components of PSQI).
This study will be approved by the University and Ethical Committee while the study population will provide informed consent and participation would be voluntary.